Serving the Marine Industry since 1936

Calculations

External Protection

The number of anodes for the protection of the hull is calculated based on the following criteria:

A. CURRENT REQUIREMENTS

The wetted surface of the hull times protective current density.

B. SYSTEM DESIGN FILE

The total weight of anode material required is:

As a result the number of anodes selected must at least satisfy both the total current and total weight requirements as follows:


ANODE LOCATION

The calculated anodes must be installed in equal distances around the hull, about 6 meters apart. The 15% - 20% of the total calculated QTY must be installed to the stern and rudder area of the vessel. The anodes should not be mounted in the zone close to the propeller’s edges.

INTERNAL CATHODIC PROTECTION

The cathodic protection of the ship’s tanks is effected with sacrificial anode system. Of course, this type of protection can be applied only to water ballast or cargo/ballast tanks. Zinc aluminum or magnesium anodes may be used but for the installation precautions must be taken for avoiding hydrogen evolution (in the case of magnesium) and sparking (in the case of aluminum). The final selection of the alloy to be used will also depend on the ballast water (seawater), the compatibility of the alloy with any cargo, which might be carried in the tank, the size of the protected tank and the type of the vessel.

Current density required for protection

In case the tank surface is being painted, the anodes will be installed to suppress corrosion on any area with paint defects. The current density of 5mAmp/m2 is normally adequate. In case of non-coated surface the following current densities are recommended:

FORE AND AFT PEAK TANK 108mAp/m²
TOP SIDE TANKS 120mAp/m²
DOUBLE BOTTOM TANKS 86mAp/m²
CARGO/CLEAN BALLAST TANK 86mAp/m²
LOWER WING TANKS 90mAp/m²

 

The system life should be at least four (4) years. The above-recommended current densities are applicable to ships for which the normal ballast trip is longer than approx. 5 days. In case the trip is shorter than 5 days, then the above densities should be increased by 20%.

Methods for Hull and Tank Anodes installations

M TYPE clamp attachments for internal anodes. Tank application

M TYPE clamp attachments for internal anodes.
Tank application.
M TYPE clamp attachments for internal anodes
External Hull Aplications

External Hull Aplications
CLAMP TYPE for pitting prevention. Tank bottom application.

CLAMP TYPE for pitting prevention.
Tank bottom application.
U BOLD Attachment for internal anodes. Tank application

U BOLD Attachment for internal anodes.
Tank application.
Z TYPE clark welds attachment for internal anodes. Tank application

Z TYPE clark welds attachment for internal anodes.
Tank application.

 

Specification Code US MIL SPEC
A18001J
Cu 0.005 max
Al 0.10 - 0.50
Fe 0.005 max
Cd 0.025 - 0.07
Pb 0.006 max
Zn REMAINDER
POTENTIAL Ag / AgCl (mV) -1050
ELECTROMECHANICAL
CAPACITY
(Amp. Hours / kg)
780

 

Specification Code  
Fe 0.15 max
Si 0.05 - 0.20
Zn 3.50 - 5.00
Ti 0.01 - 0.05
In 0.02 - 0.05
Mn 0.15 - 0.50
Cu 0.01 max
Al REMAINDER
POTENTIAL Ag / AgCl (mV) -1100
ELECTROMECHANICAL
CAPACITY
(Amp. Hours / kg)
2700